Simulation results: radiative forcing due to the formation of contrails
Radiative forcing due to the formation of contrails for present-day climate conditions and (a) present-day air traffic volume, and (b) for air traffic volume expected for the year 2050. Panels on the right hand side show the radiative forcing for climate conditions expected for 2050 and (c) air traffic volume for the year 2050, and (d) air traffic volume for the year 2050 assuming an increase in fuel efficiency and a 50% decrease in soot emissions. The numbers in the boxes show the global mean radiative forcing for each simulation.
Credit: Bock and Burkhardt, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 2019